The agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada is based on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which entered into force on January 1, 1994. This Agreement has been the result of more than a year of negotiations, including possible U.S. tariffs against Canada and the possibility of separate bilateral agreements.  The provisions of the agreement cover a wide range of agricultural products, homelessness, industrial products, working conditions and digital trade. Among the most important aspects of the agreement are better access for U.S. dairy farmers to the Canadian market, guidelines for a greater proportion of automobiles produced in the three countries instead of being imported from other countries, and the maintenance of the dispute settlement system, similar to that contained in NAFTA.   Before we dwell on it, here is some background information. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the multilateral organization that has defined the basic rules of trade between its 164 member states, including the United States. Within the framework of the WTO, there are two non-tariff agreements that directly concern FDA regulatory authorities: the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures, which includes food and feed safety measures essential for the protection of human and animal health, and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), which covers technical rules, which are essential to ensure fda requirements (e.g.
labelling and packaging, transparency, standards measures and conformity assessment). In addition, there is a provision stating that the agreement itself must be reviewed every six years by the three nations, with a sunset clause of 16 years. This deadline was not met and the agreement with Mexico was only concluded on 27 August 2018.  At that time, Canada had not yet approved the submitted agreement. Given that the outgoing President of Mexico, Enrique Peña Nieto, left office on 1 December 2018 and that 60 days of revision are required, the deadline for the submission of the agreed text was 30 September 2018, which was reached precisely on 30 September. Negotiators worked 24 hours a day and reached agreement on a draft text less than an hour before midnight. . . .